From SA Mafia Wiki
A Roleclaim is when a player reveals their role. Roleclaims are most often done if a player is about to be executed, or if a player has an investigative role and believes they have discovered scum. As a general rule, roleclaims are best put off for as long as possible, as scum are always on the look out for a cop, doctor, or other power roles to target for their nightkill. Unless it's later on in the game or it's certain that there's a doctor to protect them, townies should put off roleclaims until the last moment.
- Massclaim: Towards the end of the game, players will often do a massclaim, in which everyone fully reveals their roles so that they can then decide which role doesn't fit, or to counterclaim.
- Fullclaim: If a player claims their entire role and everything they know about it, that is called a fullclaim.
- Softclaim: If a player only implies they have a role, or otherwise that they have role-based information, that is called a softclaim. For instance, a cop with a scum result saying, "I dunno, I just really think Player is scum! Call it a hunch!" is the canonical softclaim. Softclaims are really annoying. They require players to trust another's judgment about the accuracy of their role results; they can cause the death of a townie without the townie being able to properly defend themselves (often resulting in the townie fullclaiming unnecessarily); and they allow scum to imply something but then retroactively say they didn't mean to come off as implying anything, "I just really thought Player was scum! Sorry!" Likewise softclaiming too early puts a target on your back for nightkills, since the mafia now know that you're a power role.
- Scumclaim: If a scum player is caught dead to rights, sometimes they'll fullclaim their scum role and just accept their inevitable death. This is called a scumclaim. Oftentimes the claimed scum will throw suspicion on players as they go down, as one last act of misdirection. Try your best to ignore it.
Fullclaiming too early, even if you're just claiming vanilla, can be tragic. Make sure you're doing the right thing.
However, saying you're fullclaiming but actually lying about some or all of your role is really scummy. Don't do it.